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This page gives overviews of Low Emission Zones (LEZs) by country, in different sections

You can also find a table of all the Low Emission Zone cities and emissions and their standards on our Quick Guide. You can search this table, filter by vehicle type, or order by column of interest.

Most countries with LEZs have similar schemes in the different cities, so the national overview can be useful.

 

Overview of Low Emission Zones (LEZs)

There are many Low Emission Zones (LEZs) in many European countries. Low Emission Zones are areas where access by vehicles is limited by their emissions. They are implemented to improve air quality. 

  • Air pollution is responsible for 310 000 premature deaths in Europe each yeari,
  • Poor air quality caused more premature deaths than road accidentsii,
  • The human health cost the European economy between €427 and €790 billion per yeariii.

To find out more about what and why LEZs are implemented, see our what and why Low Emission Zones page.

This website, www.urbanaccessregulations.eu, gives all the information you need to know about LEZs.

Which vehicles are affected? The following table gives an overview:

Vehicle Type  

LEZ

Current Emissions standard 2017

Future Emissions standard

Lorries only

Netherlands

Euro 4

 

Motorway A12Austria

Euro 3 

 

Austria regional

Euro 1-3

 

Mont Blanc Tunnel, FR/IT

Euro 3

 

Prague, CZ

 

Euro 3-4

Heavy duty vehicles

Finland

Euro 3 for buses and Euro 5 for garbage trucks (dustbin lorries)

 

London, UK

Euro 4 (PM)

2020: Euro 6

Denmark

Fit filter if less than Euro 4

 

Sweden

8 years old / Euro 5, 6

8 years old / Euro 5, 6

Vehicles with 4+ wheels

Belgium

Antwerp: petrol Euro 1, diesel Euro 3 with particle filter

2020: petrol Euro 2, diesel Euro 5

Gent 

2020: petrol/CNG Euro 2, diesel Euro 5, Euro 4 needs to pay
2025: petrol Euro 3, diesel Euro 6

Mechelen

2017:
Likely petrol Euro 1, diesel Euro 3 with particle filter
2020: petrol Euro 2, diesel Euro 5

Brussels

2018: diesel Euro 2
2019: diesel Euro 3
2020: petrol Euro 2, diesel Euro 4
2022: diesel Euro 5
2025: petrol Euro 3, diesel Euro 6

Germany

Euro 4 (PM) & Euro 1 Petrol; only: Neu-Ulm Euro 3

 

Lisbon, Portugal

Euro 1 or Euro 2

Planned: Euro 3 all (date not specified)

Greece, Athens

Euro 1/Euro 4

 

London

 

October 2017: additional cost for pre-Euro 6 diesel, pre-Euro 4 petrol

2020: Euro 6 diesel, Euro 4 petrol, Motorcycle, moped Euro 3

Netherlands

Utrecht cars & vans must be first registered after 1/1/2001 (Euro 3).

Rotterdam diesel Euro 3, petrol Euro 1

Amsterdam Euro 3 vans

 

Rotterdam 2018 diesel Euro 4, petrol Euro 1

Amsterdam 2018 also taxis & coaches

Norway

2017: BergenOsloTrondheim are likely to have restrictions for pre-Euro 6 vehicles

 

All vehicles

Italy

Euro 1-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycles

Euro 2-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycles

Paris

Heavy duty >3.5T Euro 3

Euro 2, 3

2017-20 Euro 2, 3, 4 gradually regulated

Local buses under agreements

Norwich, UK

Nottingham, UK

Euro 3 (NOx)

Euro 3

 

OxfordBrighton, UK

Euro V

 

Vans

London, UK

Euro 3 (PM)

2020: Euro 4 petrol; Euro 6 diesel

Germany

Euro 2-4 (PM) & Euro 1 petrol

Euro 3-4 (PM) & Euro 1 petrol

Italy

Euro 1-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycles

Euro 2-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycle

There are also emergency schemes in operation at times of high pollution in a number of cities, see our emergency schemes page for more information.

The Danish LEZ law also now allows vans to be included, which may happen in the future in Danish cities.

Operating hours:

Most LEZs operate permanently. The exemptions are:

  • Italy, where LEZs sometimes operate at peak or other selected times;
  • Lisbon and Prague >3.5T LEZ are weekday daytime,
  • Athens is weekday daytime and evening.
  • In addition, some Italian LEZs and the Athens LEZ are not in operation all the year, see each city for more details.

Enforcement mechanism: Most LEZs are manually enforced, but cameras and transponders (electronic device that transmits payments to the toll-stations – in French transpondeur) are also used, generally country-by-country, as below:

  • The London LEZMilan-Area CBelgian and Dutch LEZs are camera enforced, and the planned Norwegian LEZs will be camera enforced.
  • Manual enforcement is used in the AustrianGerman, Lisbon and Swedish LEZs.
  • Most Italian LEZs are manually enforced however a few have camera or even electronic enforcement, often when combined with another scheme or pedestrian zone.
  • The Danish LEZs set out the 3 manual enforcement methods: Firstly municipal inspectors when lorries are visiting a company; Secondly town traffic wardens checking vehicles parked on the street; Finally, police at routine roadside checks. Both inspectors and traffic wardens can call on the police when needed.
  • The Mont Blanc Tunnel LEZ is controlled by police checking the vehicle papers 
  • The UK bus LEZs are enforced through agreements with the local bus operators.

Do I have to register before entering?

  • You will need to buy a sticker before entering the zomes in GermanyFrance and Bolzano (Italy) for light duty vehicles, for heavy duty vehicles Denmark, and Austria as well.
  • In Sweden you only need a sticker if you have an exemption.
  • Foreign vehicles are required to register with London’s, Antwerp's and Gent's LEZ (as the national database does not include their details).
  • Entry to the Prague's LEZ is by permit. You need to pay to enter the Central Milan 'Area C' as well as having the required emissions standard.

In many cases registration is possible by Internet or post. More information on registering can be found on our  Where do I need to register?

Which vehicles are affected where?

Are foreign vehicles affected?

For most LEZs, foreign vehicles are also affected. The exemptions are:

  • The Netherlands lorry LEZs, where only Dutch vehicles are affected. Note: the light duty LEZs affect foriegn vehicles.
  • The bus LEZs in the UK (eg Norwich, Oxford, Brighton) only affect public buses.
  • The Athens LEZ does not affect foreign vehicles.
  • Some of the Italian LEZs do not affect foreign vehicles, or vehicles accessing hotels in the area can apply for exemptions (contact your hotel). See each city for details.
  • The Helsinki LEZ only affects buses (local) and garbage trucks (dustbin lorries).

To give an overview, whether the LEZ affects foriegn vehicles is also stated on the Quick Guide

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