It depends on the country and the size of the motorhome / campervan.

Increasingly low emission zones are also affecting light duty vehicles, often all vehicles. This means that campervans are included

If the motorhome is under 3.5T, it is restricted in:

If the motorhome is over 3.5T:

  • In Denmark and Sweden campervans are not affected (as long as they have less than 9 seats)
  • Budapest and Prague it's heavy duty vehicles that are affected, so the motorhome is affected
  • In the Netherlands lorry LEZs and the Austrian motorway restrictions are for lorries only, so the motorhome is not restricted.
  • They are also affected in the schemes listed above for <3.5T vehicles.

If there is no retrofit LEZ certification in your own country, then any existing retrofit certification or national recognition is recommended. In the absence of both of these we would suggest that a particulate filter is chosen that is valid in the country you are travelling to, with a certification from the manufacturer.

Our low emission zone pages give some information about air quality and health and some further sources.

Information about LEZs can be found on the individual LEZ pages, either by clicking our map, or an introduction into Low Emission Zones on our LEZ pages.

This depends on the zone.

Low emission zones in the following countries require action before you enter the zone. See our list of where you need to register for LEZs.

Urban Road Charging schemes often require payment before entering the zone, see our congestion charging overview.


Urban access regulations often require a permit if you are allowed access, see the urban access regulations overview page.


This depends on the zone.

For low emission zones, see our LEZ overview article on which vehicles are affected.

For urban toll schemes, see our congestion charge overview.

For access regulations see our access regulation overview.

Physical access restrictions apply to all the vehicles in the road sign. Physical access restrictions are usually aimed at heavy vehicles, or wide, high or long vehicles.

To reduce air pollution, as air pollution kills. To find out more see our What are low emission zones page.

Air pollution affects the local air we breathe. CO2 affects climate change, which is where the earth is getting gradually warmer, and level of the sea is rising due to the icebergs melting.

Both are a problem, and measures to reduce one, such as energy efficiency, will often reduce the other.

This depends on the LEZ, see the individual city information. In most cases if you are identified you will be fined or charged, and in Germany you will also receive points on your driving licence.

If your vehicle is a foreign vehicle in the LEZ, you may well still be fined or charged.

Schemes are included on our website when they are confirmed as being in operation. They then have the information on a full page, including their confirmed future plans. Plans that are under discussion or consideration are not included, as these may not come into operation, and we do not want to cause confusion.

You can get an overview of future schemes by looking at our 'Quick guide', which enables you to see which schemes are coming up. You can order the quick guide by city name, or date, or select by the type of vehicle affected with our buttons.

Our overview pages give a guide to which vehicles are affected in which LEZs. Generally the vehicles affected are the same for each country. However, in Italy it can vary, and in the Netherlands some LEZs will affect vans while the rest affect lorries only, and in the UK the London LEZ affects a wide range of vehicles while the other LEZs in the UK affect public buses only.

Further information on which vehicles are affected in which LEZ can be found in our Overview of LEZs.

For urban road charging the information is on our Overview of Urban Road Charging Schemes.

For other types of urban access regulation or access restriction schemes, see Urban Access Regulations.

The different vehicle categories affected are:

  • All vehicles
  • Heavy duty vehicles
  • Local buses under agreements
  • Lorries only
  • Vans
  • Vehicles with 4+ wheels


Full information on each scheme, including how to apply for a permit, where a permit is available or needed is given on our full page.

Where an exemption is possible, we list the exemptions, and you will need to contact the city authority for more details, we give the link to the city authority on each page. We try to keep the exemptions up to date, but they can change frequently, so we update them periodically. The exemptions may not be as up to date as the rest of the information, and the details should be checked with the city authority for more recent information. The exemption page for each city states the last update.

Full information on each scheme, including what evidence is required for the emissions standard of your vehicle is given on our full page for each country or city.

Most schemes affect foreign vehicles. Whether foreign vehicles are affected by the scheme can be found out from our quick guide.
Full information on the scheme, including whether foreign vehicles are affected by the scheme is given on the full page for each scheme.

All urban road charging schemes affect foreign vehicles.

For most LEZs, foreign vehicles are also affected. The exemptions are:
The Netherlands, where only Dutch vehicles are affected
The bus LEZs in the UK (Norwich, Oxford, Brighton) only affect public buses
The Athens
LEZ does not affect foreign vehicles

Most LEZs operate permanently. The exemptions are Italy, where LEZs sometimes operate at peak or other selected times; Lisbon, Prague >3.5T and Budapest LEZ are weekday daytime, Athens is weekday daytime and evening. In addition, some Italian LEZs and Athens LEZ are not in operation all the year, see each city for more details.


Most LEZs are manually enforced, but cameras and transponders (electronic device that transmits payments to the toll-stations – in French transpondeur) are also used, generally country-by-country, as below:

  • Manual enforcement is used in the Swedish, Austrian motorway and German LEZs.
  • The Dutch LEZs started with manual enforcement but have now moved to camera enforcement
  • Most Italian LEZs are manually enforced however a few have camera or even electronic enforcement, often when combined with another scheme or pedestrian zone.
  • The Danish LEZs set out the 3 manual enforcement methods: Firstly lorries are checked by municipal inspectors when they are visiting a company; Secondly traffic wardens check vehicles parked on the street; Finally, police at routine roadside checks. Both inspectors and traffic wardens can call the police when needed.
  • The London-LEZ and Milan-Ecopass are camera enforced
  • The Norwich and Oxford LEZs (UK) are enforced through agreements with the local bus operators.
  • The planned Norwegian LEZs intend to use the same electronic device system as used for motorway tolls (Autopass), with camera and manual enforcement also possible, as well as cameras to enforce those who do not pay.

Urban Road Charging enforcement

Milan Area C, Valetta, London, Goteborg, Stockholm urban road charging schemes are enforced with cameras viewing the number plate.

Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim schemes are enforced with transponders, the same as are used for the motorway toll system

Durham congestion charge is enforced by a payment booth at the entry of the scheme

Budapest controlled areas are manually enforced


Do I need a sticker for each low emission zone?

Do I have to register? Where do I do this?

See the following pages with up to date information

For LEZs:

See our "where do I have to register for LEZs" page for details.

Urban Road Charging

See our "where do I have to register for Road Charging" page for details.

Urban Access Regulations

See our "where do I have to register for Access Regulations" page for details.

For those LEZs and Budapest access regulation scheme, where registration is required before entry (see Where do I need to register? for LEZs), you need to allow enough time for the registration process. This will vary from scheme to scheme, so please see the individual city or country.

Otherwise previous notice is not required if you comply or pay.

These can be found in detail on each city page, as well as on the Overview of Urban Road Charging Schemes. The Quick Guide also gives an overview of the urban road charging schemes.



Vehicles affected



Milan Area C

All vehicles, except motorcycle

2- 5€ / day



Heavy Duty Vehicles only



Valetta - CS

All vehicles, except motorcycle

0.82€ - 6.52€ /day


Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim integrated into the national motorway/main road toll scheme

All vehicles

1,20  -6 €/day


Goteborg - CS

All vehicles, except motorcycles

1,10 - 2,20€/day


Stockholm - CS

All vehicles, except motorcycles

1.10-6.60€ /day

United Kingdom, UK

Durham - CS

All vehicles, except m/cycles & >9 seats

2,50 € /day

United Kingdom, UK

London - CS

All vehicles, except m/cycles & >9 seats

12 € /day


The website has all Urban Access Regulations through 4 types of data:

LEZ logo Low Emission Zones where access is regulated by vehicle emissions. Vehicles driving into the zone must meet the emissions standards given.
Our website gives all the information you need on all current or confirmed future LEZs. Search using our country menu, Quick Guide, low emission zones overview, map or search using the table of all schemes below.

CS logo Urban Road Charging where access is regulated by payment. Vehicles are allowed to go in, but need to pay a charge to enter the city area (except Milan; Area C is both a LEZ and charge). See Road Charging Overview.
Key -ARS logo Major Access Regulation Schemes (key-ARS) where access is regulated by other methods. For example where access is allowed at certain times of the day or only permits are needed and granted for certain types of vehicles (see access regulation overview).
These are also known as Traffic Restrictions, Access Control Schemes, Permit Schemes or in Italy ZTLs. We also call them key-ARS on our website.

physical ARS logo Physical Regulations (p-ARS) where access regulated by vehicle type, weight, height, width, length or weight by axle. Cities with schemes are given by our Quick Guides. Details are shown on the map, for which free registration is needed either directly or with facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn.

We do not generally include pedestrian areas or parking schemes, except some very large schemes. We also do not (yet) include all key-ARS, but those for larger cities. If a city does not have a key-ARS, it may have a physical ARS, please look on the Quick Guide or homepage search.

First you need to log in (see login on the header).
If you are not yet registered, please do so, it is free.

Once logged in, you can find the city through the map search or the quick guide.

You need to zoom into the map far enough to be able to see the regulations on the map. Otherwise the information can not be seen.

The most likely reason is that you are using an older Internet Browser version, for example Internet Explorer 8 or earlier.

If you are, please upgrade your Browser. More up to date versions of the main Internet browsers can be downloaded free from the following sites: Internet Explorer, Fire Fox, or Chrome. We take no responsibility for external links.

If this is not the case, please first try clearing the cash, and if it is still not working as it should do, please email our webmaster and we will look into it.

To find out the version of your Internet Browser, look under tools (either on a menu or the cogged wheel symbol on the top right, which looks a bit like ☼), and "About ....". To clear the cash, also look under tools or the menu button.

There are three main ways to buy a German low emission zone sticker (Umweltplakette).

1. German LEZ stickers can be purchased online for all vehicles in all countries for 17.50€ (from inside of Germany 9,90), also available to purchase in different languages.

2. Within Germany, they are available from every TÜV station. So for example, they can be bought in TÜV offices in towns without an LEZ without entering the LEZ.  TÜV sud locations can be found by the search on their homepage. TÜV Nord offices can be found here, offices outside Germany where stickers can be bought are listed below.

3. You can buy German stickers in person in the TÜV offices in the countries below.

Czech Republic
The Netherlands

You can also buy them in Belgium from VAB Belgium office (VAB Pastor Coplaan 100 2070 Zwijndrecht, Belgium see VAB contact).

In cases of very high pollution, cities such as Beijing or Delhi have introduced 'odd and even numberplate' traffic regulations. For example on the 8th December 2015 in Beijing.
The schemes can have an impact on traffic and pollution in the short term in extreme situations - but at the cost of significant inconvienience. If they become longer term measures, then their impact reduces, as has happened in Athens (Greece) where they are adopting emissions aspects to improve the odd and even scheme. Outside Europe, in Tehran (Iran) found that their odd-even scheme was no longer effective, and are now implementing a low emission zone.

While odd-even schemes can sometimes be useful in extreme pollution events, it is better to work in a more planned way to ensure that the pollution levels reduce so that they do not reach the high levels. In Europe we have long had measures such as vehicle emission standards ('Euro standards"), low sulphur petrol and diesel (which reduces emissions). These can be combined with long term local measures, such as low emission zones , congestion charging and traffic limited zones are more effective for traffic.

For more information on other things that are done to improve air quality, see our page on what else is being done to reduce air pollution.

Diesel: Euro 4(PM) means that the particulate aspect of the set Euro standard needs to be met. This means that a diesel particulate filter can be used to bring a pre-Euro 4 vehicle to meet the Euro 4 standard to enable access into the zone. This means that:

  • A Euro 4 diesel vehicle can enter the zone.
  • If the zone affects cars or vans, then a Euro 3 diesel car/van can fit a diesel particulate filter to reach the Euro 4 standard, and enter the zone.
  • For heavy duty vehicles, diesel particulate filters are often available to bring a Euro 2 or even Euro 1 vehicle to reach the particulate aspect of the Euro 4 standard.

For more information on which countries allow what retrofits, please see our which retrofit is valid page.


Yes, it is valid and legitimate.

Unfortunately, for many countries, there is not a more direct way for cities to enforce penalties. So cities like London use private management companies. London uses epcplc, which has bank accounts in each country, to make it easier (and cheaper) for those paying the fines

Pay these penalty notices as soon as you can. The cost can increase if you delay paying.

Other cities use other comanies. If you are in doubt, check with the city or company website.

From the websites linked from each city page on

Watch out for other websites selling stickers and plakettes. They can be around 5 times more expensive than the official sources.

Similarly for paying congestion charges.

Make sure you use the official sources.

These are linked from our website,, together with all the reliable information you need about the scheme.

From the websites linked from each city page on, under the Need to Register? heading. 

Watch out for other websites selling stickers, plakettes and entry into congestion zones. They can be around 5 times more expensive than the official sources.

Make sure you use the official sources.

These are linked from our website,, together with all the reliable information you need about the scheme.

Do I need a sticker for each low emission zone?

Do I have to register? Where do I do this?

See the following pages with up to date information

For LEZs:

See our "where do I have to register for LEZs" page for details.

Urban Road Charging

See our "where do I have to register for Road Charging" page for details.

Urban Access Regulations

See our "where do I have to register for Access Regulations" page for details.

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